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Ancient Egyptian


The civilization of Ancient Egyptian  coalesced around 3150 BC  with the political unification of Upper

and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh , and it developed over the next three

millennia. Its history occurred in a series of comparatively stable periods, labeled

by scholars today as Kingdoms , separated by periods of relative instability known

as Intermediate Periods. Ancient Egypt reached its pinnacle during what is today

called the New Kingdom , after which it entered a period of slow, steady decline ،

Ancient Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign powers in this late period, and the

rule of the pharaohs officially ended in 31 BC when the early Roman Empire

conquered Egypt and made it a province .

The success of ancient Egyptian civilization stemmed partly from its ability to adapt

to the conditions of the Nile River Valley . The predictable flooding and controlled

irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which fueled social

development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored

mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early

development of an independent writing system , the organization of collective

construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military

intended to defeat foreign enemies and assert ancient Egyptian dominance. Motivating

and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes , religious

leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh who ensured the

cooperation and unity of the  ancient Egyptian in the context of an elaborate system

of religious beliefs

The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying , surveying

and construction techniques that facilitated the building of monumental pyramids ,

temples, and obelisks ; a system of mathematics , a practical and effective system

of medicine , irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first

known ships, ] ancient Egyptian faience and glass technology, new forms of literature ,and

the earliest known peace treaty. Ancient Egypt left a lasting legacy. Its art and architecture

were widely copied, and its antiquities carried off to far corners of the world.  Its

monumental ruins have inspired the imaginations of travellers and writers for

centuries.A newfound respect for antiquities and excavations in the early modern

period led to the scientific investigation of Ancient Egypt civilization and a greater

appreciation of its cultural legacy, for Egypt and the world.

 This is the period that witnessed the ancient Egyptian

Old Kingdom (2686-2160 BC)
First Intermediate Period (2160-2040 BC)
Middle Kingdom (2040-1633 BC)
Second Intermediate Period (1786-1558 BC) 
New Kingdom (1558-1085 BC)
Third Intermediate Period (1085-525 BC)
Persian rule (525-332 BC)
Greek rule (332-30 BC) (also called the Hellenistic)
Roman rule (30 BC-700 AD )
Islamic rule (700 AD to 1500)


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